The Qatari constitution stipulates that the rule of law is the basis of government in the state, and that the honor of the judiciary and the integrity and fairness of judges are a guarantee of rights and freedoms. The judiciary is independent and is exercised by courts of all types and degrees, and their judgments are issued in accordance with the law.
In 2003, the Judicial Authority Law was issued in Qatar, which defined how the courts should perform their role in society and decided that judges are independent and cannot be rejected unless in accordance with the provisions of the law. The independence of the judiciary or interference with justice is not permissible.
The courts consist of the Court of Cassation, the Court of Appeal, and the Court of First Instance, and each of them has jurisdiction to decide on issues brought to it in accordance with the law. Circuits of the Court of First Instance may be established in other cities by a decision of the Supreme Judicial Council.
The superior committee of justice
Founded in 1999 to ensure the independence of the judiciary and work to achieve its independence, and it is concerned with expressing opinion on issues related to the judiciary, studying and proposing legislation for developing the judicial system, appointing, promoting, transferring, delegating, seconding and retiring judges in accordance with the provisions of the law and considering grievances related to judges ’affairs, and the council’s decision regarding them is final.
The Public Prosecution shall undertake the public prosecution in the name of the community, supervise the affairs of judicial control and watch over the application of criminal laws. The law arranges this body and organizes its functions, and defines the conditions and guarantees for those who assume its functions.